Weiss Ch. 7.11
Extra information about (constraints on) the items to be sorted may render the sort non-general and thereby allow quick tricks for sorting.
Say N input items are positive integers smaller than M. Obvious idea is M-long 'bucket' array of item counts: read thru input and update array, O(M+N). How beat the time bound? Indexing to a bucket is making an M-way choice, not a binary comparison.
I remember mechanical (IBM, Hollerith, punched) card sorters. Multi-pass, sorting on one digit of the key at a time. Every such pass of the sort was a bucket sort into one of (let's say) 10 bins. With 4 passes you could sort 10000 cards.
Q. Which digit (low or high-order) do you want to sort first?
Notice that items that agree in the digit for the current pass retain the ordering given them by prior passes. This is the technical definition of a stable sort. Without physical bins we'd use lists for the buckets. Weiss tells us that the time is O(p(N +b)) with p the number of passes, N the item count, b the number of buckets. Seems to me p = logbN.
Weiss gives code for sorting strings (256 buckets for ASCII chars) using two radix sorts, including the "counting" radix sort, which is rather clever and minimizes temporary storage.
If can't fit data into memory, access times for some items are grotesquely lengthened, certainly by enough to motivate new sorting techniques that minimize disk or tape accesses. The whole analysis becomes highly device- and configuration-dependent.
Text's Restrictive model: tapes! items only accessible "efficiently" (but slowly) in sequential order (both directions). Need two tapes to beat O(N2), more to make it easier.
With tapes, merges are very natural, so sort uses merges as in mergesort. Text uses four, with straightforward idea of reading in-memory-sortable blocks of size M, sorting, and merging- writing sorted blocks out, rinse and repeat.
With four tapes it's pretty easy to see and analyze the requisite work, and more tapes mean multi-way merges can be done for fewer passes thru data. The polyphase merge algorithm uses k+1 tapes to do what it would seem needs 2k tapes. Replacement selection is a cute way to construct the M-long sortable arrays in core memory in a smart adaptive way that takes advantage of their shrinking as items are sorted and merged out to tape. (The algorithm uses a p-queue ;-} ).
Weiss 7.8 -- 7.10
Is NlogN the best we can do on sorting? Yes! Worst case and average, as it turns out. That is:
Any sort that uses only comparisons requires ⌈log(N!)⌉ comparisons in the worst case and log(N!) comparisons on average.
If there are P cases to distinguish, it takes ⌈log(P)⌉ YES/NO questions in some case. Thus a binary "20 questions" could distinguish a million cases (of course the canonical first question is "animal, vegetable, or mineral?" as I recall, so 1.5M).
So with N! permutations, we need the log of N!, which is one of the things that Stirling's approximation (well-known, often-used, cf. Wikipedia) is good for. It says:
ln N! = Nln N - N +O(ln(N)),
so there we are. If the next term in the series approximation is included, we see the more familiar
N! ≅ √(2πN)(N/e)N.
An implementation of the information theoretic argument, if you like, is to consider a binary decision tree, with a node holding one side of the outcomes of a binary question asked at the parent (for instance, in sorting items a,b,c, one question might be "is a < b?").
The proof thus comes down to rather simple analysis of binary trees:
Proof: (to heck with Stirling, anyway!)
log(N!) = log (N(N-1)...2 1) = log N + log(N-1) + ... + log 2 + log 1 ≥ log N +log(N-1) + ... +log(N/2) ≥ (N/2)log(N/2) = (N/2)(logN - log2) = (N/2)logN - N/2 = Ω(NlogN).LB PPT
Weiss 7.9 proves three lower-bounds for selection problems, which (except for the median) are tight (have corresponding algorithms that take just this much time).
These claims are proved by a series of easy (but for lemma 7.5, which takes a bit of reasoning) steps. What is important is not the results or the details, but the idea of mapping the question into a structure (here a tree) whose properties are computable and correspond to the answers we seek. A general, good idea (and skill).
Another basic technique for figuring out lower bounds on algorithm complexity is to imagine an "evil demon" constructing your input. Such arguments often provide much tighter bounds than either information-theoretic or decision-tree arguments. In fact the first bound (N-1 comparisons to find minimum) was really computed using a sort of informal adversarial argument, not really decision tree argument at all.
To be rude about decision trees: Their bounds are often unhelpful, optimistic-sounding. There are N choices for the minimum, so the information-theoretic bound and resulting decision tree argument says "you'll need at least logN comparisons. (at least 20 for a million items)" True enough, but that is a lot sloppier and less informative bound than "you'll need N-1 (999,999 for a million items)".
In this section, just to show off the adversarial method, Weiss shows
⌈3N/2⌉ -2 comparisons are necessary to find both largest and smallest items.
What's interesting about this section is not the above bound (cool and all that, but...), it's the adversarial method at work that we care about.
Example: N-1 comparisons needed to find minimum.
Every element x, except the smallest, must be involved in a comparison with some other element y, in which x > y. Else if there were two different elts that had NOT been declared larger than any others, then either could be the smallest.
N-1 comparisons needed to find minimum. Simple adversarial strategy (Table 7.20). I'm your adversary: I make up an input (which I can always show you and not get caught lying) that forces N-1 questions.
U is unknown, E is eliminated, a-e are my numbers, 0,1,2...the values I give them (dynamically, during questioning, and invisible to you!). INFO means you learn something (one number is < another), NOINFO means you don't.
a b c d e U U U U U 0 0 0 0 0 (my current set of values) You: a < b? Me: yep! (U-U) INFO a b c d e U E U U U (b can't be smallest) 0 1 0 0 0 (curr vals - consistent w/ ?s) d < e? Yes (U-U) INFO a b c d e U E U U E (e can't be smallest) 0 1 0 0 2 b < e? Yes! (true. (E-E) NOINFO a < e? Yes! (true --so I don't eliminate) (U-E) NOINFO ...
Need to eliminate N-1 numbers, so need N-1 (U-U) questions.
Finding minimum and maximum... harder!
⌈3N/2⌉ -2 comparisons are necessary to find both
largest and smallest items
we must produce aa rather impressive table of the adversary's fiendish input construction strategy. Not immediately obvious, need to read p. 309, but idea is for adversary not to give out more than one unit of information per question. (e.g. if you ask if x>y for a new x and y, the answer tells you that one is not the minimum and one is not the maximum... two units of info. Adversary must minimize that sort of thing...