3 Programs
    In this chapter, Ballard introduces the idea of the brain as a state machine, which is handled by operators in order to select a specific trajectory along this space. Two deterministic approaches to problem solving are briefly outlined: Heuristic search and Minimax. While the first approach relies on in depth (which Ballard calls global) rating of alternative paths, the second strategy, which is specific to two-persons games, seeks to improve the chances of wining by analysing the set of next possible (local approach) configurations in terms of the actions taken by the adversary. The heuristic search strategy is discussed in terms the cannibals and missionaries problem and the eight-puzzle, and the Minimax method is briefly illustrated in terms of Othello and alpha and beta cutoffs.
    By considering that the world is too complex to be effectively dealt with by using these two alternatives, Ballard motivates the probabilistic strategies to be discussed further on his book.